Water is the main requirement and success factor in the fish cultivation. Good quality produce better output.

The parameters used to determine water quality is the amount of oxygen, temperature, acidity, content of ammonia and water turbidity. Requirement water quality is different for each species of fish. eg.  catfish are relatively resistant to poor water quality.

Oxygen levels

Oxygen levels to obtain optimum production is above 5 ppm. To increase oxygen levels aerator can be used.


In general, water temperatures 25-32 0 C are good for fish. At high temperatures the fish will show oxygen deficiency symptoms. Sudden temperature changes can cause fish stress that can lead to death.


Acidity  good for fish is 5.5-9.0. Although the fish are still be able to survive outside that range but give the  lower production result.  If  acidity is too low can be increased by using agricultural lime (CaCO3).


Turbidity protect fish from predators. In other way turbidity can affect the fish respiratory system. 30-40 cm is good for fish cultivation.

Ammonia levels

Ammonia are toxic to fish. Ammonia are produced from the secretions / fish excrement. Optimum ammonia for fish are below 1.4 ppm. Water change partially or completely, reduce levels of ammonia. Other ways are by filtering.For the cultivation of ornamental fish in aquarium or small pond, this filtering ways are most often used because its more practical and saves time.

Click the link   Filter to see an example of a filter.